In our collection of letters from African journalists, novelist and author Adaobi Tricia Nwaubani seems on the high-quality line between hate speech and innocent stereotypes in Nigeria.
The Nigerian parliament is contemplating a invoice underneath which anybody discovered responsible of “hate speech that ends in the dying of one other individual shall die by hanging upon conviction”.
The legislation additionally seeks the institution of an “Impartial Nationwide Fee for Hate Speech”, to implement hate speech legal guidelines throughout the nation, together with jail phrases and fines.
That is simply the most recent in a lot of makes an attempt to deal with what seems to be an increase in hate speech throughout Nigeria.
In a latest discuss, titled, Hate Speech: Halting the Tide Earlier than it’s Too Late, the Emir of Kano, Lamido Sanusi, referred to as for “an organised warfare in opposition to hate speech”.
Final 12 months, Vice-President Yemi Osinbajo likened hate speech to an act of terrorism.
“[The government has] drawn a line in opposition to hate speech,” he mentioned. “It is not going to be tolerated, will probably be taken as an act of terrorism and all the results will observe.”
And, whereas making references to the 1994 genocide in Rwanda which was fuelled by that nation’s media, Nigeria’s Minister for Data, Lai Mohammed, mentioned: “In Nigeria at this time, the hate being spewed on radio stations throughout the nation is so alarming.
“For those who tune into many radio stations, you’ll be shocked by the issues being mentioned, the careless incitement to violence and the extent of insensitivity to the multi-religious, multi-ethnic nature of our nation.”
Adaobi Tricia Nwaubani:
“Nigerians have all the time derived leisure from poking enjoyable at one another’s variations.”
These revered political and conventional leaders have spoken properly.
Nigeria has skilled quite a few horrific circumstances of ethnic violence, from the pogrom within the run-up to the 1967 civil warfare, proper as much as the current day.
However, what precisely is “hate speech”? That half remains to be unclear.
And what higher time to depart the general public with no doubts by any means as now that the specter of dying by hanging looms?
The Oxford English Dictionary defines hate speech as “a speech or address inciting hatred or intolerance, esp. towards a particular social group on the basis of ethnicity, religious beliefs, sexuality, etc.”.
However, in contrast to many elements of the western world the place the slightest expression of prejudice is anathema, Nigerians have all the time derived leisure from poking enjoyable at one another’s variations.
There are standard stereotypes concerning the three main ethnic teams—Igbo, Yoruba and Hausa—which everybody attracts upon for enjoyable.
‘Give me your knife Mr President’
Shortly after Muhammadu Buhari was elected as president of Nigeria, for instance, he attended the anniversary celebration of one of many south-west states.
The grasp of ceremonies was a well-liked Nigerian comic, Ali Baba. When it was time for the dignitaries current to chop the cake, a quick delay ensued whereas a knife for the proceedings was being sought.
Ali Baba then turned to President Buhari and mentioned: “Mr president, please, give me your knife. I hear that every one Hausa individuals carry knives with them.”
Your complete viewers, together with the president, burst into wild laughter, as I did together with everybody else watching the occasion with me on the TV display screen in a Hausa good friend’s workplace.
Ali Baba, from the Niger Delta area, had drawn upon a well-liked stereotype of the Hausa ethnic group of northern Nigeria as ever-ready for a struggle, with daggers hid of their full and flowing robes.
However, his remark was not perceived as abusive.
Equally, the Igbo of the south-east, like me, are sometimes amused when individuals tease us about our supposed money-mindedness.
There’s this standard joke about an Igbo little one who continued to fail essentially the most primary sums in his arithmetic class.
However, when his trainer included greenback indicators earlier than the figures, the boy was all of the sudden ready so as to add and subtract essentially the most advanced numbers with alacrity.
Extra like this:
The Yoruba of the south-west are teased for his or her two-facedness, an inclination to be fawning earlier than you and scorning behind your again.
And any joke teller is assured an prompt chuckle if he all of the sudden switches to a thick Yoruba accent, full with the misplaced “h” sounds and the heavyweight tones.
There’s a joke a couple of Yoruba lady who was shouting “Hamisu! Hamisu!” to her boyfriend.
He thought she was mistakenly calling the title of a secret lover, not understanding that she was really telling him: “I miss you! I miss you!”
The identical string of phrases will be thought of hate speech in a single context, and fully innocent – enjoyable, even – in one other.
Instructed in a unique setting and with a unique motive, Mr Baba’s phrases might simply fall into the realm of hate speech.
If hate speech in Nigeria just isn’t clearly outlined, somebody someplace could someday sometime, on a whim, determine crime has been dedicated in an analogous state of affairs, then determine to prosecute.
In any case, we’re speaking a couple of nation the place cybercrime legal guidelines have been used to press costs in opposition to journalists who criticised politicians and businessmen on-line and on social media.
The tide of hate speech in Nigeria undoubtedly must be stemmed. Peace and concord among the many nation’s greater than 300 ethnic teams is important for the nation to outlive and thrive.
Nevertheless, the dictionary definition of hate speech is not going to suffice when addressing the difficulty.
Taking into account that elections are arising in lower than a 12 months and all types of inventive means will seemingly be deployed to halt political opponents—together with imprecise legal guidelines and bogus costs.
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